Plane Of Glenoid



True movements of the shoulder should be defined and performed in terms of the plane of the glenoid.

With the arm hanging by the side the scapula faces 30 degrees anteriorly as it sits on the chest wall, tilts 3 degrees upward in the transverse plane and 20 degrees forwards relative to the sagital plane.

The humerus sits in retroversion of 30 degrees relative to the transepicondylar axis of the distal humerus.

In terms of active movements and joint mobilisations this translates that the average version of the glenoid is 5 degrees of retroversion to the sagittal plane.

For the most effective rehabilitation

    • Working in the sagittal plane allow 5 degrees of external rotation.
  • Working in the transverse plane allow for 25 degrees of adduction ie 30 degrees anterior tilt of the scapula – 5degrees of retroversion of the glenoid.


Scapula Orientation on the chest wall – 30 degrees Anterior to the sagital Plane




Scapular Orientation on the chest wall – illustrating 3 dregrees of upward rotation.